Operating the Motorcycle
- Whats the preflight inspection?
- Before every ride, check...
- Tire pressures.
- Tires for wear, cuts, and stones.
- Engine oil level
- Coolant level.
- Headlights, brake lights, turn signals.
- When I start the bike, in neutral, push the clutch in and shift into
first or second with out letting go of the clutch the bike jerks forward.
It's like the gears "punch" in. The engine doesn't stall,
the RPMs don't even drop. The jerk isn't very big it's just that it
worries me. What's going on?
- That's normal and nothing to worry about. The clutch is a wet multiplate
design (it runs in the engine oil) and has a little drag to it when
the oil cold.
- How do I steer/stop this thing?
- Please see the section on Rider Training.
- What is counter-steering?
- Counter-steering is the technique of physically pushing the motorcycles
handlebars in the direction opposite from that which four-wheeler-based
intuition would tell you it should go. It is the most efficient way
to steer a motorcycle in everyday driving and in emergencies.
- How do I make really tiught, slow turns?
- Check out the Slow School.
- Whats this about shaft-driven motorcycles not counter-steering
- Balderdash. Its a boring old joke used to start flame-wars and
confuse newbies. Its a misrepresentation of the story about why
- Whats SIPDE?
- The newbie motorcyclists mantra: Scan, Identify, Predict, Decide,
Execute. (Not, Shit, Im probably dead anyway.)
- Whats this Vanishing Point I keep reading about?
- Its a technique for gauging the correct maximum speed for the
conditions. Read the
article and the illustrations.
- What's a decreasing-radius turn?
- It's a turn that gets tighter as you ride through it. They are deceiving
and potentially dangerous. Your initial estimation of the turn's radius
(the inverse of tightness) is fine for the first part of the turn but
then it surprises you as it gets tighter. Here are aerial
photos of two decreasing-radius turns.
- What is a stoppie?
- A stoppie is when you stop with the front brake in such a way that
you purposely bring the rear wheel off the ground. The opposite of a
- Whats a high-side/low-side?
- A high-side is where the bike suddenly regains traction after beginning
to skid and spits the rider over the bike. The rider typically exits
on the high side of the bikethe side not closest to the ground.
A low-side is simply where the bike loses traction and skids into the
ground with the rider remaining on the low side of the bikethe
side closest to the ground.
High-sides are usually more severe. The most common high-side accident
scenario is where the rider loses traction at the rear wheel (due to
excessive power or over-braking), the bike starts to skid, the rider
regains traction suddenly by releasing the brake or chopping the power,
and the bike immediately regains traction and spits the rider over the
bike and tumbles. The key to avoiding this is learning not to chop the
power and not to overuse the rear brake.
- How does a motorcycle transmission work?
Dans Motorcycle Gear Box
Honda CB-1 Tranmission Simulation
- Why does the shift pattern have neutral between 1st and 2nd?
- Actually, there is a specific reason why neutral ended up between
first and second gear when motorcycle controls were standardized in
In the 60s and 70s, there was a growing trend toward placing neutral
below first gear. My nephew, for example, had a Kawasaki 100 with a
"4 up" shift pattern (N,1,2,3,4). As this shift pattern gained popularity,
more and more motorcyclists were developing the tendency to instictively
shift the bike all the way down into neutral as they slowed, sometimes
accidentally, but most times intentionally. The idea was that you could
stay in neutral at a light or stop sign, then clutch into gear and start
rolling again when right-of-way was established. The habit was obviously
flawed, and riders started getting hurt.
The vast majority of injuries were caused when a bike was inadvertently
upshifted from neutral into first gear at a fast coast. The resultant
engine breaking caused instant rear wheel lockups, which in turn caused
crashes. The mechanical aspects of neutral's location also caused various
runability and logistical problems, as well.
By locating neutral between first and second gears, the severity of
engine breaking in the event of accidental upshift was reduced, as well
as making neutral a relative inconvenience, rather than something riders
depended on. It also made first gear the natural first position in the
gear box, which is where the transmission should be adjusted whenever
the bike is stopped in traffic anyway.Tim Kreitz
- Neutral is in its odd location because thats where it makes
the most sense to locate it. On a bike, you rarely need to be in neutral:
youve a clutch, which is your primary method of disconnecting
the engine from the transmission. Indeed, you could go completely without
a neutral gear, if you could stand the monotony of holding the clutch
as the bike warms up, and turning off the bike whenever you got more
than an arms-reach distance from it.
First gear, however, is extremely useful. Its great for starting
in. And its great for stopping in. Its really good for driving
slowly, too. So its at the bottom: as you approach a stoplight,
you start to brake, and you tap your gears down to match your speed.
If the light goes green before you get there, youre ready to rocket.
If its red, you keep the clutch in, and remain in first gear,
ready to rocket. You never do go into neutral when you stop. As you
leave the stoplight, you tap your gears up to match your speed. You
never do go into neutral when you accelerate.
Now, imagine the situation if neutral were located at the bottom: you
start slowing for the light. You begin tapping down. Youre almost
stopped, you tap into neutral, the light goes green, you rev the gas,
and you tip over because youre out of gear. The asshole behind
you runs you over as your engine shoots a piston through your groin.
Damn, that sucks.
As its absurd to place neutral between 2nd and 3rd, or any of
the higher gears, no example needed. ((Five Fresh) Fish)
- What's the petcock for? How do I use it?
- Its a Main/Reserve fuel valve. Its purpose is to select which
of two tubes the fuel pump uses to get fuel from the fuel tank. One
of the tubes is at the bottom of the tank; the other is about an inch
higher. The normal On position gets fuel from the tube with
the higher opening. When it runs dry, you switch to Reserve
which gets that last gallon or so from the bottom of the tank. That
gives you enough range to make it to the next gas station for a fill-up.
- Why not just run on Reserve all the time?
- Well, you would get another thirty or so miles out of a tankfull,
but then when you run out of gas, you have to push your motorcycle to
the next gas station.
Traffic and Road Conditions
- Whats the proper technique for waiting at a stop light?
- Keep your motorcycle in gear. Watch the rearview mirror for that idiot
who keeps hitting motorcycles that are waiting at red lights.
- How do I deal with a Left Turn on Green Arrow Only intersection
when the sensors wont trip the light?
- You cant change lanes: the drivers handbook makes it clear
that thats not legal. You cant leave the bike and push the
pedestrian crossing button, for thats abandoning your bike. Common
wisdom has it that if you wait through three cycles, then the light
is obviously malfunctioning, and you should treat it as a stop sign.
The safe thing to do is to wait until theres a green light for
the other lanes and then to proceed. Cops have been known to give tickets
in this circumstance. Subpoena them and challenge the ticket in court.
- What do I do when it rains?
- When it rains, slow down a bit. Be aware that the first rains in the
season will cause all the accumulate oil and spooge to float up to the
surface and make the roads really slick for the first hour or three.
Keep practicing your panic stops. Be aware that since there is less
traction, your rear wheel will even more readily lock up, so be gentle
with it until you get a feel for its traction in the wet.
- How do I deal with rain on my visor?
- On the freeway, alternate between turning your head to the right and
to the left. (Keep your eyes looking ahead!) The wind blast will blow
the water off your face shield, just like it does from the side of your
- What do I do in the wind?
- Loosen up on the handlebars. Let the bike lean into the wind. Loosen
up on the handlebars. The bike will do the right thing by itself. Loosen
up on the handlebars.
- What is the Wind Chill Factor when I'm riding my motorcycle?
- See NOAAs Wind
Chill Temperature Index page. Just use your speed.
- What do I do in the fog?
- Parts of California commonly get patchy thick fog. Interstate 5 and
other highways commonly are the scenes of multiple-car pileups resulting
from people driving way too fast in the fog. Often, even if you slow
down to an appropriate speed, some other idiot behind you will not,
causing big pileups. A motorcyclist was killed this way early in 2002.
First, slow down. Use your brakes so you light up your brake lights.
Dont drive faster than you can see.
Second, dim your lights. The high beam will just illuminate the fog
and blind you. If your motorcycle has four-way flashers and youre
going pretty slowly for freeway traffic, turn them on. (25MPH or slower
is the typical rule, but use your judgement.)
Third, if traffic slows to a stop, split between lanes of cars and get
ahead in the jam. This may protect you from the idiot whos still
doing 75MPH behind you and cant possibly stop in time before hitting
the stopped cars.
- What do I do in the winter?
- In many places, it gets too cold or snowy to regularly ride during
the winter, so you have to lay the bike up for storage. Check your bikes
user manual for how to do this.
In the San Francisco Bay Area, winterizing a motorcycle
means packing your rain gear in the saddlebags and velcroing closed
the vents on your Aerostich.
- What should I do on groovy pavement?
- Loosen up on the handlebars. Let the bike squirm. Loosen up on the
- What is lanesplitting?
- Also known as lane sharing, it is the practice of riding between lanes
- Is lanesplitting legal?
- In California, its not exactly illegal. In most other states
- Is lanesplitting safe?
- According to a study done in sounthern California in 1996, it is. Read the SFgate article.
- How do I lane-split safely?
- When traffic is stopped or moving slower than ~20 MPH, you can split
between lanes of traffic moving in the same direction. Keep your speed
no faster than 15 MPH over what the traffic is doing. Watch out for
holes to either side of you because holes attract lane changes. Read
101. It's sensationalist fluff, but the advice is pretty good.
Special Hazards and Other
- Argh! I dropped my bike! What do I do now?
Up a Fallen Bike
- When should I lay her down?
- Laying down a bike to avoid a crash is highly recommended by
the IAMBPM (International Association of Motorcycle Body Part Manufacturers),
the MMU (Motorcycle Mechanics Union) and the AMAMSG (American Medical
Association for More Skin Grafts).
We should all lay our bikes down more often to help support these fine
organizations! Very often, stopping or swerving to avoid a crash does
absolutely no damage to the motorcycle or the rider thereby depriving
the shops and hospitals of repair work. Let's all quit being so selfish
and do what we can to help the economy, so lay down your bike for the
good of all (except, of course, yourself, but it's a small sacrifice
On my first long trip on my old used goldwing, I met some friends
down in the valley, and they were to follow me. Soon, one of them pulled
alongside and notified me that I was losing some coolant and they didn't
like it. I pulled over, and determined that rather than get out the
toolkit for a 10mm to unbolt the overfilled coolant reservoir,I could
simply remove the cap and roll the bike over on the front and rear crashbars,
on the soft sandy shoulder without damage, and saved some time. It made
a good photo, too.
I could change the rear tire on the road the same way, but havent had
to yet. When I hit the horse trailer in Washington, I was on the brakes
all the way to impact, which is why I could get up and worry about the
damage and finishing my trip.Paul Calman
Almost never. Tire rubber has immense traction; plastic, steel,
and chrome have next to no traction at all. If youre on your bike
and in control, you stand a much better chance of stopping in time or
swerving out of the way than if you just let the bike slide.
One of the tests in the MSF Basic Rider Course practical exam covers
swerving. You ride at ~20 MPH directly at the instructor. At the last
moment, he points to one side or the other and yoru'e supposed to swerve
the bike in that direction. If you swerve in the correct direction,
you get ten points for the question. If you swerve in the wrong direction,
you get eight. If you fail to swerve at all, you fail the course. The
MSF does not teach you how to lay her down.
- Whats a Tank-Slapper?
- A violent oscillation of the front steering. All steering systems
on motorcycles have a natural frequency (or speed) where, given an initiating
disturbance, they will tend to oscillate quickly from side to side,
each oscillation bigger than the previous. At its worst, the steering
will be hitting the stops very rapidlythus the term tank
slapper. Damping prevents this from happening, by the riders
arms and sometimes helped by a hydraulic steering damper. The newer
sport bikes with their steeper steering geometry are more susceptible.
The most common slapper scenario is to be accelerating rapidly from
a corner over broken pavement where the front wheel is barely touching
the ground. A combination of bumps in the pavement and the rider attempting
to steer the bike while the front wheel is slightly off the ground can
cause an initial disturbance that is exactly at the natural oscillating
frequency of the steering and overwhelm whatever damping the rider or
bike is providing. Most people, however, seem to be able to ride them
Of course, worn steering bearings, worn tires, accident misalignment,
poor suspension setup, etc. can all make the bike more susceptible to
Watch this MPEG
movie of a tank-slapper.
- Anything else in particular should I watch out for?
- Avoid Volvos, SUVs, mini-vans, and people talking on cell phones.
None of them can see youor would care if they did.
- People in Volvos drive as if they were in the safest cars
in the world and seem to be disproportionately dimwitted on the
- People in SUVs drive as if they have super powers, the
right of way, and diplomatic immunity.
- People in mini-vans drive as if they were in little sports
- People talking on a cell phone drive as though they are
talking to the President and nothing else matters.
- How do I deal with dogs that jump motorcycle riders during
back street tours?
- Slow down a bit; let the dog get on its course to intercept you. Just
before it gets to you, accelerate away from it.
- How do I deal with deer, elk, and other large animals in the road?
- Read this article on Critter
- I have a physical handicap and need suggestions on a bike.
- You could try the news group uk.people.disability.bikers and the National
Association for Bikers with a Disability.
- What do I do in case of an earthquake?
- Dont panic. Slow down. Make sure theres still road ahead
of you. Read the Seattle
P-I article. San Francisco is using motorcycles
as parts of its earthquake and disaster response plan.
- What can you tell me about radar detectors?
- Not much. But you can check the Radar
- Where are good places to ride in California?
- Try the California
Motorcycle Roads web site.
- Any tips & tricks for taking you bike on the ferry?
the Shiny Side Up: Traveling by ferry with your bike
- Dont use your center-stand (side-stand is sturdier).
- If you leave the bike unattended, chock the wheels.
- If you leave the bike unattended, part (if possible) at 45 degrees
to the direction of travel.
- If there are high seas, chock the bike under the engine as well.
- During docking and departing, stay with the bike, and grab the
front brake for additional stability.
- Dont use the disc lock. Where is the bike going to go?
- Keep the bike in gear.
- Can I ride my motrocycle
in the abandoned areas around the nuclear reactor that melted down in
- I quit riding bikes in 1974 (750-Four-K) when I went to Germany because
my ex-wife sucks. Anyway, I bought a new one last month and noticed when
I was riding down the road and approached another biker he would wave at
me in a sorta under handed wave with his left hand down by his side.
Back when I used to ride the bikers salute, if you will, was with the
left arm extended about 45 degrees in the up direction, sort mocking the
go to hell black power movement back then.
WTF happened? Some dumbass change the rules? Seriously, this pussified
underhanded weak wrist wave has got to go, or have bikers become bitches?
- I changed the rule. I'm a member of The Committee, and we had a meeting
at Alices up on 35 a couple of years ago. You didn't get the memo
because you fell off the mailing list.
If you're a sportbike rider, you now have to give the peace sign. If
you're a BMW rider, you have to wave pretty much like you described.
Harley riders have special permission not to wave, as does anyone in a
steep turn or lanesplitting.
The problem of guys with black gloves waving but not being seen to wave
because they're wearing black leathers is being addressed by the
Visibility Subcommittee. Last I head they're mandating 1/8" reflective
piping on the backs of the gloves, and cute paw-print-like circles on
the palm and fingers.
Oh, and your "dumbass" comment has been noted and entered into your